Warning: There are no guarantees for the robustness of the GeoCalcLib! Please report any malfunction.

The GeoCalcLib provides five different wrappers to call the LRS routines:

  1. facetEnumeration() calculates a half space description for the provides vertex/ray description.

  2. vertexEnumeration()calculates a vertex description for the provided half space description.

  3. inequalityReduction() produces an irredundant half space description for a polyhedron in half space description.
  4. vertexReduction() produces an irredundant vertex/ray description of a polyhedron in vertex/ray description.
  5. projectPolyhedron() does not call a LRS routine, but projects a polyhedron in half space description and returns the result in half space description.
  6. LRS() allows passing more data to the LRS engine to perform the vertex and facet enumeration. Allows passing parameters.

On top of the direct interface to the LRS library createLRSfile() and readLRSfile() are provided to write and read an LRS input file respectively.

Facet Enumeration

Generate a set of vertices:

\begin{equation} V = \left(\begin{array}{c} v_1^T \\[0em] v_2^T \\[0em] \vdots \end{array}\right) \end{equation}

For example translates to

    V = [eye(2);-eye(2)];

We can produce a plot of the polytope using

	k = convhull(V(:,1),V(:,2));
	fill(V(k,1),V(k,2),'r');
Matlab Figure Converted by PLOT2SVG written by Juerg Schwizer -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

The H-representation of is trivially obtained as

\begin{equation} P = \left\{x\in\mathbb R^2 : \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 1 \\[0em] -1 & 1 \\[0em] 1 & -1 \\[0em] -1 & -1 \end{pmatrix} x \leq \begin{pmatrix} 1 \\[0em] 1 \\[0em] 1 \\[0em] 1 \end{pmatrix} \right\} \end{equation}

This can result is obtained by calling [A,b] = facetEnumeration(V). Called with one argument facetEnumeration(V) assumes that all rows in V are vertices.

If rays are present, an additional vector type must be provided

[A,b] = facetEnumeration(V,type)

each row in type is either type(i) = 1 if V(i,:) is a vertex or type(i) = 0 if V(i,:) is a ray. [A,b] = facetEnumeration(V,ones(size(V,1),1)) produces the same result as [A,b]=facetEnumeration(V).

Vertex Enumeration

The vertexEnumeration() function produces a vertex/ray representation for a given polyhedron .

Assume we want to understand the epigraph of the piecewise affine function for . The epigraph is given by

\begin{equation} \text{epi}(\varphi) = \left\{ (x,t) : 0\leq x\leq 5, x+1\leq t, 2x \leq t, 3x-4\leq t \right\} \end{equation}

\begin{equation} A = \begin{pmatrix} 1 & -1\\[0em] 2 & -1\\[0em] 3 & -1\\[0em] 1 & 0\\[0em] -1 & 0 \end{pmatrix} , b = \begin{pmatrix}-1 \\[0em] 0 \\[0em] 4 \\[0em] 5 \\[0em] 0 \end{pmatrix} \end{equation}

Using this as an input

>>[V,type] = vertexEnumeration(A,b)
V =

     0     1
     0     1
     1     2
     4     8
     5    11
     0     1

type =

     1
     0
     1
     1
     1
     0

we obtain the vertices and rays generating the epigraph.

plot(V(logical(t),1),V(logical(t),2))
Matlab Figure Converted by PLOT2SVG written by Juerg Schwizer 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Inequality Reduction

The call [Aout,bout] = inequalityReduction(Ain,bin) returns an irredundant H-representation of .

Vertex Reduction

The call [Vout,tout] = vertexReduction(Vin,tin) returns an irredundant V-representation of where the vertices in Vin are passed by setting tin(i) = 1 if Vin(i,:) is a vertex and tin(i) = 0 if Vin(i,:) is a ray.

If , passing tin = ones(size(V,1),1) can be omitted Vout = vertexReduction(Vin) assumes all passed points are vertices.

Projection

The projection of polyhedral sets is performed for polyhedra in H-representation , and is always projected on to . The projected set is returned in H-representation.

Internally a vertex enumeration is performed on , the projection operator acts trivially on points by just dropping off the last elements, after that a facet enumeration is appended to produce the H-representation of . The function call [Aout,bout] = projectPolyhedron(Ain,bin,d) performs this operation for general polyhedra:

P = gallery('uniformdata',[30,3],1);
[A,b] = facetEnumeration(P);

K = convhull(P);
figure(1)
trisurf(K,P(:,1),P(:,2),P(:,3))
hold on

[C,d] = projectPolyhedron(A,b,1);

V = vertexEnumeration(C,d);
k = convhull(V(:,1),V(:,2));
fill(V(k,1),V(k,2),'b');
hold off
Matlab Figure Converted by PLOT2SVG written by Juerg Schwizer 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Vertex and facet enumeration with LRS parameters

The functions vertexEnumeration() and facetEnumeration() perform a vertex and facet enumeration respectively for data that was preconditioned by the user. The vertexEnumeration() call requires the user to prepare a type vector if rays are present etc. and the facetEnumeration() call only treats inequality constrained sets. To exploit (almost) the full scope of possibilities the LRS engine offers the LRS() function is provided.

The argument is a struct with the required field 'rep' specifying whether a V- or an H-representation is passed. Each representation has its own arguments:

Assume we want to facet enumerate the first quadrant, i.e. , then we define the structure

s = struct('rep','V','R',eye(2));
[A,b] = LRS(s)
A =

     0    -1
    -1     0


b =

     0
     0

If we have we set the additional field

s.V = [1,1];
[A,b] = LRS(s)
A =

     0     0
    -1     0
     0    -1


b =

     1
    -1
    -1

That is, if the s.rep='V' at least one of s.V or s.R has to be passed.

Assume now that we want to vertex enumerate the 3-dimensional simplex , that is the representation of rep='H'

s = struct('rep','H','Aineq',-eye(3),'bineq',zeros(3,1),'Aeq',ones(1,3),'beq',1);
[V,t] = LRS(s)
V =

     1     0     0
     0     1     0
     0     0     1


t =

     1
     1
     1

The interpretation of the output for a vertex enumeration is exactly the same as for vertexEnumeration() that is, V(i,:) is a vertex if t(i)=1 and V(i,:) is a ray if t(i)=0.

If s.rep='H' then s.Aineq and s.bineq are required, s.Aeq and s.beq are optional.

In addition to the computational data parameters may be passed, so far maxcobases, maxoutput and maxdepth are accepted. See LRS options for details.

If we want to restrict the number of search depth in the vertex enumeration of a 12-dimensional cube, and further we also want to constrain the number of explored cobases and only need 5 vertices we would call

[V,t] = LRS(struct('rep','H','Aineq',[eye(12);-eye(12)],'bineq',ones(24,1),'maxdepth',3,'maxcobases',12,'maxoutput',5))

V =

    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1
     1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1
    -1     1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1
     1     1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1
    -1    -1     1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1    -1


t =

     1
     1
     1
     1
     1

Warning: Although this function has been thoroughly tested, there might be uncaught exceptions. Matlab will immediately crash if you come across an uncaught exception. These exceptions have no numerical nature, but can occur when passing unaccepted data types (passing cell arrays instead of arrays etc.). Please test your code your function calls before calling this function in an automated environment!

Writing and reading LRS input files

Many LRS users might prefer to call the LRS executable directly in order to be able to see the output as it is obtained, rather than waiting for the entire solution to be returned. For this purpose createLRSfile('param1',param1,...) is provided to generate a LRS input file from within the Matlab environment.

The supported parameters are

  • fname - specifies the file name of the LRS input file created, if omitted a file called lrstest.ine is created in the current directory.
  • rep - 'V' or 'H' implying that the data is passed in a V- or H-representation respectively.
  • If rep='V' vertices are passed as the parameter V in a matrix vdat containing a vertex/ray in each row, optionally Type can be used to pass a vector of 1/0 such that type(i) = 0 implies vdat(i,:) is a ray and type(i) = 1 implies vdat(i,:) is a vertex. If Typeis not specified all rows of vdat are assumed to be vertices.
  • If rep='H' the set of inequalities is passed by setting A to Adat and b to bdat. If b is omitted the set is assumed to be
  • The optional parameter tol may be set to the desired conversion tolerance to a rational format, default 1e-12.

To create an LRS input file myfile.ine to vertex enumerate the unit ball in two dimensions we would use

A = [eye(2);-eye(2)];
b = ones(4,1);
createLRSfile('rep','H','A',A,'b',b,'fname','myfile.ine');

Users who have produced results using the LRS executable wanting to import it into the Matlab environment would first change the head of the result file into an admissible LRS input file, i.e replace the ***** n rational line by m n rational, where m and n are the number of rows and columns respectively. Then pass the filename to readLRSfile('filename').

To read in the result of a vertex enumeration in myfile.ext, i.e. the result is in V-representation, we would call

[V,type] = readLRSfile('myfile.ext');